Anonymous works are listed under their title, you should ignore any initial definite or indefinite article when placing in alphabetical order If you are including two or more items from an edited volume, they should each have their own entry in the bibliography It is essential to maintain consistency of styling throughout a bibliography. Try not to over-rely on quotations, as this may show a lack of understanding of the information yourself. If the date is an approximate date, circa should be used. Note If you have used a streaming service such as iPlayer to view something recently broadcast on television, use the example given for Video – Database e. MHRA guidance states that magazines, which are defined as regularly non-scholarly periodicals, should be referenced the same as you would reference a Newspaper Article. She straightens up, lays her hands flat on the ground, throws her head back and gazes at zenith. Only give the main title of the journal, only give a subheading or place of publication if it will distinguish the journal from another of the same name.

Stage directions should be italicised and separated from speech by a space. Oxford University Press, Wise Publications, , pp. References are given a superscript an Arabic numeral typed slightly above the line within the text which point to references given in full shown as numbered footnotes at the bottom of each page. This is when you reference one author who is referring to the work of another, and the primary source is not available. If the electronic version is a stable document, such as a PDF, you will be able to refer to page numbers you have used in your work. Author or designer surname, forename, Name of app Year , Platform app is available from.

MHRA: In-Text Citations

Omissions If part of the quotation is omitted then this should be indicated using an ellipsis e. For qkote information about footnotes, referencing multiple authors, and creating a bibliography, see Citing in the text, footnotes and bibliography and click on the relevant section. When quoting from literature such as a play or poem, the original spelling and punctuation should be preserved wherever possible. You can paraphrase to avoid using quotes that have a tenuous link to the argument you are presenting.


There is no need to include quotation marks for long quotations.

MHRA: In-Text Citations

Try not to over rely on quotations, as this may show a lack of understanding of the subject area being studied. You should capitalise each significant word of the title and subtitle.

The only newspaper this does not apply to is The Times. When you paraphrase, you should restate the meaning of the original text in your own words. Colin, If a list contains more than one work by the same author a 2 em dash —— should be substituted for the name after the first appearance and they should be listed in alphabetical order of title e.

MHRA Footnotes referencing

Mjra Gladwell observes, summarising studies on the highly successful, we tend to overestimate the role of talent and underestimate that of preparation. The bibliography is given at the end of the assignment; this is a complete list of all the material consulted in writing your assignment even if you have not cited them within it, with full bibliographic details It is presented in alphabetical order by surname of the first author listed on the reference.

You will need the written consent of anyone who was involved in the communications that have taken place even if you were the recipient of the message, and you may not name the individuals in your work. For Kindle or other e-reader see Book – electronic. Publisher, Yearpages of chapter.


You should keep the spelling and punctuation used in the social media post.

Publisher, Year of publicationpage range used. Titles of exhibitions should be enclosed in single quotation marks referred to in the text.

how to quote poetry in an essay mhra

If the item is a translated item, you would place the name of the translator after the title and use the abbreviation trans. Scenes, cantos, chapters use Arabic numerals.

Cambridge University Press,I.

For Twitter see Social Media. In the footnotes Footnote Number Author or designer forename surname, Name of app YearPlatform app is available from. If you are citing materials produced in a language other than English, but in roman script, you may need place a translated title in square brackets after the original title, depending on who the intended audience for your work will be and the language the work is to be written in.

Verse quotations longer than two lines of verse and prose quotations longer than three lines of type should be indented. Note If you have used a streaming service such as iPlayer to view something recently broadcast on television, use the example given for Video – Database e. A reference list includes all works that have been referred to in the assignment.

Cambridge University Press, Cambridge Core ebook. The page numbers of the reference must follow this.

MHRA Footnotes referencing

Poetgy references can then be provided in an abbreviated but intelligible form 2. However, when referring to early historical works there are some exceptions.

Publisher, Year of publicationpage range if available. Publisher, Year of publication. Early English Books Online ebook.

how to quote poetry in an essay mhra

Oxford University Press, ; repr.